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Hot This Week. Latest News Stories. Iggy Azalea did have Playboi Carti's son. Joe Budden is skeptical. Tory Lanez Calls Out B. Simone sparked an online debate with her Puta - SlutsnStrings & 909 - Carrera (Vinyl, Album). This was made possible by the adaptation of music in different locations, and the influence on style of behavior and dress.
However, despite hip hop music produced on the island lacking widespread local and international recognition, artists such as Five Steez have defied the odds by Lover Come Back To Me - The Cleftones - Lover Come Back To Me / Again (Vinyl) online hip hop taste-makers and even reggae critics.
Hartwig Vens argues that hip hop can also be viewed as a global learning experience. Even when hip hop is transplanted to other countries, it often retains its "vital progressive agenda that Perrosky - Tostado (Vinyl, LP) the status quo. Hip hop has played a small but distinct role as the musical face of revolution in the Arab Springone example being an anonymous Libyan musician, Ibn Thabitwhose anti-government songs fueled the rebellion.
In the early-to-mid s, there wasn't an established hip hop music industry, as exists in the s, with record labels, record producersmanagers and Artists and Repertoire staff. Politicians and businesspeople maligned and ignored the hip hop movement. Most hip hop artists performed in their local communities and recorded in underground scenes. However, in the late s, music industry executives realized that they could capitalize on the success of "gangsta rap.
They ignored the depictions of a harsh reality to focus on the sex and violence involved. In an article for The Village VoiceGreg Tate argues that the commercialization of hip hop is a negative and pervasive phenomenon, writing that "what we call hiphop is now inseparable from what we call the hip hop industry, in which the nouveau riche and the super-rich employers get richer".
However, in his book In Search Of Africa Manthia Diawara states that hip hop is really a voice of people who are marginalized in modern society. He argues that the "worldwide spread of hip hop as a market revolution" is actually global "expression of poor people's desire for the good life," and that this struggle aligns with "the nationalist struggle for citizenship and belonging, but also reveals the need to go beyond such struggles and celebrate the redemption of the black individual through tradition.
Industry executives seem to bet on the idea that men won't want to listen to female rappers, so they are given fewer opportunities. As the hip hop genre has changed since the s, the African-American cultural "tradition" that Diawara describes has little place in hip hop's mainstream artists music. The push toward materialism and market success by contemporary rappers such as Rick RossLil Wayne and Jay Z has irked older hip hop fans and artists.
They see the genre losing its community-based feel that focused more on black empowerment than wealth. The commercialization of the genre stripped it of its earlier political nature and the politics and marketing plans of major record labels have forced rappers to craft their music and images to appeal to white, affluent and suburban audiences.
There, rappers had opportunities to be interviewed and have their music videos played. The commercialization has made hip hop less edgy and authentic, but it also has enabled hip hop artists to become successful.
As top rappers grow wealthier and start more outside business ventures, this can indicate a stronger sense of black aspiration. As rappers such as Jay-Z and Kanye West establish themselves as artists and entrepreneurs, more young black people have hopes of achieving their goals.
Katy Perry, a white woman, was criticized for her hip hop song " Dark Horse ". Like the bluesthese arts were developed by African American communities to enable people to make a statement, whether political or emotional and participate in community activities. These practices spread globally around the s as fans could "make it their own" and express themselves in new and creative ways in music, dance and other arts.
DJing and turntablism are the techniques of manipulating sounds and creating music and beats using two or more phonograph turntables or other sound sources, such as tapes, CDs or digital audio files and a DJ mixer that is plugged into a PA system.
In addition to developing Herc's techniques, DJs Grandmaster FlowersGrandmaster FlashGrand Wizzard Theodoreand Grandmaster Caz made further innovations with the introduction of " scratching ", which has become one of the key sounds associated with hip hop music.
Traditionally, a DJ will use two turntables simultaneously and mix between the two. These are connected to a DJ mixer, an amplifierspeakersand various electronic music equipment such as a microphone and effects units. The result of mixing two records is a unique sound created by the seemingly combined sound of two separate songs into one song.
Although there is considerable overlap between the two roles, a DJ is not the same as a record producer of a music track. DJs were often avid record collectors, who would hunt through used record stores for obscure soul records and vintage funk recordings. DJs helped to introduce rare records and new artists to club audiences.
In the early years of hip hop, the DJs were the stars, as they created new music and beats with their record players. While DJing and turntablism continue to be used in hip hop music in the s, the star role has increasingly been taken by MCs since the late s, due to innovative, creative MCs such as Kurtis Blow and Melle Mel of Grandmaster Flash 's crew, the Furious Fivewho developed strong rapping skills.
However, a number of DJs have gained stardom nonetheless in recent years. The underground movement of turntablism has also emerged to focus on the skills of the DJ. In the s, there are turntablism competitions, where turntablists demonstrate advanced beat juggling and scratching skills. Rapping also known as emceeing,  MCing,  spitting bars or just rhyming  refers to "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics with a strong rhythmic accompaniment".
While rapping is often done over beats, either done by a DJ, a beatboxerit can also be done without accompaniment. It can be broken down into different components, such as "content", "flow" rhythm and rhymeand "delivery". Graffiti is the most controversial of hip hop's elements, as a number of the most notable graffiti pioneers say that they do not consider graffiti to be an element of hip hop, including Lady PinkSeenBlade, Fargo, Cholly Rock, Fuzz One, and Coco Frankly I grew up with disco music.
There's a long background of graffiti as an entity unto itself,"   and Fargo says, "There is no correlation between hip hop and graffiti, one has nothing to do with the other. How do they intertwine? In America in the late s, before hip hop, graffiti was used as a form of expression by political activists. He was a member of the "Savage Skulls" gang, and started writing his nickname in his neighborhood as early as According to the article Julio had been writing for a couple of years when Taki began tagging his own name all around the city.
Taki also states in the article that Julio "was busted and stopped. Julio never rose to Taki's fame because Julio kept his tags localized to his own neighborhood. One of the most common forms of graffiti is tagging, or the act of stylizing your unique name or logo. Spray painting public property or the property of others without their consent can be considered vandalism, and the "tagger" may be subject to arrest and prosecution for the criminal act.
Whether legal or not, the hip hop culture considers tagging buildings, trains, bridges and other structures as visual art, and consider the tags as part of a complex symbol system with its own social codes and subculture rules. Such art is in some cases now subject to federal protection in the US, making its erasure illegal. Bubble lettering held sway initially among writers from the Bronxthough the elaborate Brooklyn style Tracy dubbed " wildstyle " would come to define the art. The relationship between graffiti and hip hop culture arises both from early graffiti artists engaging in other aspects of hip hop culture,  Graffiti is understood as a visual expression of rap music, just as breaking is viewed as a physical expression.
The film Wild Style is widely regarded as the first hip hop motion picture, which featured prominent figures within the New York graffiti scene during the said period. The book Subway Art and the documentary Style Wars were also among the first ways the mainstream public were introduced to hip hop graffiti. Graffiti remains part of hip hop, while crossing into the mainstream art world with exhibits in galleries throughout the world.
Like many aspects of hip hop culture, breakdance borrows heavily from many cultures, including s-era street dancing,   Brazilian and Asian Martial artsRussian folk dance and the dance moves of James BrownMichael Jacksonand California funk.
Breaking took form in the South Bronx in the s alongside the other elements of hip hop. Breakdancing is typically done with the accompaniment of hip hop music playing on a boom box or PA system. According to the documentary film The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-BoyDJ Kool Herc describes the "B" in B-boy as short for breaking, which at the time was slang for "going off", also one of the original names for the dance.
However, early on the dance was known as the "boing" the sound a spring makes. Dancers at DJ Kool Herc's parties saved their best dance moves for the percussion break section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style.
The "B" in B-boy or B-girl also stands simply for break, as in break-boy or -girl. Before the s, B-girls' presence was limited by their gender minority status, navigating sexual politics of a masculine-dominated scene, and a lack of representation or encouragement for women to participate in the form. The few B-girls who participated despite facing gender discrimination carved out a space for women as leaders within the breaking community, and the number of B-girls participating has increased.
Beatboxing is the technique of vocal percussionin which a singer imitates drums and other percussion instruments with her or his voice. It is primarily concerned with the art of creating beats or rhythms using the human mouth. It was first popularized by Doug E. It is generally considered to be part of the same "Pillar" of hip hop as DJing—in other words, providing a musical backdrop or foundation for MC's to rap over.
Beatboxers can create their beats just naturally, but many of the beatboxing effects are enhanced by using a microphone plugged into a PA system.
This helps the beatboxer to make their beatboxing loud enough to be heard alongside a rapper, MC, turntablist, and other hip hop artists. It declined in popularity along with b-boying in the late s, but has undergone a resurgence since the late s, marked by the release of "Make the Music Although it is not described as one of the four core elements that make up hip hop, music producing is another important element.
In music, record producers play a similar role in sound recording that film directors play in making a movie.
The record producer recruits and selects artists rappers, MCs, DJs, beatboxers, and so onplans the vision for the recording session, coaches the performers on their songs, chooses audio engineerssets out a budget for hiring the artists and technical experts, and oversees the entire project. The exact roles of a producer depend on each individual, but some producers work with DJs and drum machine programmers to create beats, coach the DJs in the selection of sampled basslinesriffs and catch phrasesgive advice to rappers, vocalists, MCs and other artists, give suggestions to performers on how to improve their flow and develop a unique personal style.
Some producers work closely with the audio engineer to provide ideas on mixing, effects units e. The producer may independently develop the "concept" or vision for a project or album, or develop the vision in collaboration with the artists and performers. In hip hop, since the beginning of MCing, there have been producers who work in the studio, behind the scenes, to create the beats for MCs to rap over.
Producers may find a beat they like on an old funk, soul, or disco record. They then isolate the beat and turn it into a loop. Alternatively, producers may create a beat with a drum machine Tony Touch - Hip-Hop #77 Rap Attack (CDr) by hiring a drumkit percussionist to play acoustic drums. The producer could even mix and layer different methods, such as combining a sampled disco drum break with a drum machine track and some live, newly recorded percussion parts or a live electric bass player.
A beat created by a hip hop producer may include other parts besides a drum beat, such as a sampled bassline from a funk or disco song, dialogue from a spoken word record or movie, or Tony Touch - Hip-Hop #77 Rap Attack (CDr) "scratching" and "punches" done by a turntablist or DJ. An early beat maker was producer Kurtis Blowwho won producer of the year credits in, and Known for the creation of sample and sample loops, Blow was considered the Quincy Jones of early hip hop, a reference to the prolific African American record producer, conductor, arranger, composer, musician and bandleader.
One of the most influential beat makers was J. Dilla, a producer from Detroit who chopped samples by specific beats and would combine them together to create his unique sound. Those who create these beats are known as either beat makers or producers, however producers are known to have more input and direction on the overall the creation of a song or project, while a beat maker just provides or creates the beat.
As Dr. Dre has said before "Once you finish the beat, you have to produce the record. Most beats in hip hop are sampled from a pre-existing record. This means that a producer will take a portion or a "sample" of a song and reuse it as an instrumental section, beat or portion of their song.
This loop provides an accompaniment for an MC to rap over. The tools needed to make beats in the late s were funk, soul, and other music genre recordsrecord turntablesDJ mixersaudio consolesand relatively inexpensive Portastudio -style multitrack recording devices. In the s and s, beat makers and producers used the new electronic and digital instruments that were developed, such as samplers, sequencers, drum machines, and synthesizers.
From the s to the s, various beat makers and producers have used live instruments, such as drum kit or electric bass on some tracks. To record the finished beats or beat tracks, beat makers and producers use a variety of sound recording equipment, typically multitrack recorders.
DAWs have made it possible for more people to be able to make beats in their own home studio, without going to a recording studio. Beat makers who own DAWs do not have to buy all the hardware that a recording studio needed in the s huge 72 channel audio consoles, multitrack recorders, racks of rackmount effects unitsbecause era DAWs have everything they need to make beats on a good quality, fast laptop computer.
Beats are such an integral part of rap music that many producers have been able to make instrumental mixtapes or albums. Even though these instrumentals have no rapping, listeners still enjoy the inventive ways the producer mixes different beats, samples and instrumental melodies. Some hip hop records come in two versions: a beat with rapping over it, and an instrumental with just the beat.
The instrumental in this case is provided so that DJs and turntablists can isolate breaks, beats and other music to create new songs. The development of hip hop linguistics is complex. Source material include the spirituals of slaves arriving in the new world, Jamaican dub music, the laments of jazz and blues singers, patterned cockney slang and radio deejays hyping their audience using rhymes.
Academics suggest its development stems from a rejection of the racial hierarchy of language, which held "White English" as the superior form of educated speech.
There are also a number of words which predate hip hop, but are often associated with the culture, with homie being a notable example. One particular example Janikin Zaplet the rule-based slang of Snoop Dogg and Ewho add -izzle or -izz to the end or middle of words.
Hip Hop lyrics have also been known for containing swear words. Some female artists have tried to reclaim the word and use it as a term of empowerment. Regardless, the hip hop community has recently taken an interest in discussing the use of the word "bitch" and whether it is necessary in rap. In Canada, the use of non-standard variants of French, such as Franglaisa mix of French and English, by groups such as Dead Obies  or Chiac such as Radio Radio  has powerful Discipline - Wat Tyler - Tummy (CD) implications for Canadian language politics and debates on Canadian identity.
In the United States rappers choose to rap in English, Spanishor Spanglishdepending on their own backgrounds and their intended audience. Hip hop has made a considerable social impact since its inception in the s. Patterson argues that mass communication is controlled by the wealthy, the government, and major businesses in Third World nations and countries around the world.
As a result, the youth are influenced by the American hip hop scene and start their own forms of hip hop. Patterson believes that revitalization of hip hop music will occur around the world as traditional values are mixed with American hip hop music,  and ultimately a global exchange process will develop that brings youth around the world to listen to a common musical form of hip hop.
It has also been argued that rap music formed as a "cultural response to historic oppression and racism, a system for communication among black communities throughout the United States". In the s, hip hop lyrics are starting to reflect original socially conscious themes. Rappers are starting to question the government's power and its oppressive role in some societies. Members of minority communities—such as Algerians in France, and Turks in Germany—use rap as a platform to protest racism, poverty, and social structures.
Hip hop lyricism has gained a measure of legitimacy in academic and literary circles. Studies of hip hop linguistics are now offered at institutions such as the University of Torontowhere poet and author George Eliot Clarke has taught the potential power of hip hop Untitled to promote social change.
Hip hop texts are rich in imagery and metaphors and can be used to teach irony, tone, diction, and point of view. Hip hop texts can be analyzed for theme, motif, plot, and character development. Both Grand Master Flash and T. Eliot gazed out into their rapidly deteriorating societies and saw a "wasteland.
Hip hop music has been censored on radio and TV due to the explicit lyrics of certain genres. Many songs have been criticized for anti-establishment and sometimes violent messages. The use of profanity as well as graphic depictions of violence and sex in hip hop music videos and songs makes it hard to broadcast on television stations such as MTV, in music video form, and on radio. As a result, many hip hop recordings are broadcast in censored form, with offending language "bleeped" or blanked out of the soundtrack, or replaced with "clean" lyrics.
InRoger Ebert wrote: . Rap has a bad reputation in white circles, where many people believe it consists of obscene and violent anti-white and anti-female guttural.
Some of it does. Most does not. Most white listeners don't care; they hear black Too Long - Bridewell Taxis - Invisible To You 89-91 (Cassette) in a litany of discontent, and tune out.
Yet rap plays the same role today as Bob Dylan did ingiving voice to the hopes and angers of a generation, and a lot of rap is powerful writing. In Junea U. Professor Louis Gates testified on behalf of The 2 Live Crew, arguing that the material that the county alleged was profane actually had important roots in African-American vernacular, games, and literary traditions and should be protected.
Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent culture of inner-city American black youths. Ice-T released " 6 in the Mornin' ", which is often regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in After the national attention that Ice-T and N.
A created in the late s and early s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Their lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word " nigga ".
These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel. The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N. A's Straight Outta Comptonreleased in Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City.
Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song " Fuck tha Police " earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing law enforcement 's resentment of the song.
The song was intended to speak from the viewpoint of a criminal getting revenge on racist, brutal cops. Ice-T's rock song infuriated government officials, the National Rifle Association and various police advocacy groups. Ice-T suggested that the furor over the song was an overreaction, telling journalist Chuck Philips " But I don't hear anybody complaining about that.
But nobody wants a black man to write a record about a cop killer. What started out as an underground art form has become a vehicle to expose a lot of critical issues that are not usually discussed in American politics. The problem here is that the White House and wanna-be's like Bill Clinton represent a political system that never intends to deal with inner city urban chaos," Sister Souljah told The Times.
The show was exemplified by music videos such as " Tip Drill " by Nellywhich was criticized for what many viewed as an exploitative depiction of women, particularly images of a man swiping a credit card between a stripper's buttocks. The group, having politically radical and Marxist lyrical content, said the cover meant to symbolize the destruction of capitalism.
Their record label pulled the album until a new cover could be designed. Critics such as Businessweek ' s David Kiley argue that the discussion of products within hip hop culture may actually be the result of undisclosed product placement deals.
The symbiotic relationship has also stretched to include car manufacturers, clothing designers and sneaker companies,  and many other companies have used the hip hop community to make their name or to give them credibility. One such beneficiary was Jacob the Jewelera diamond merchant from New York.
He created jewelry pieces from precious metals that were heavily loaded with diamond and gemstones. As his name was mentioned in the song lyrics of his hip hop customers, his profile quickly rose.
Arabo expanded his brand to include gem-encrusted watches that retail for hundreds of thousands of dollars, gaining so much attention that Cartier filed a trademark-infringement lawsuit against him for putting diamonds on the faces of their watches and reselling them without permission.
While some brands welcome the support of the hip hop community, one brand that did not was Cristal champagne maker Louis Roederer. A article from The Economist magazine featured remarks from managing director Frederic Rouzaud about whether the brand's identification with rap stars could affect their company negatively.
His answer was dismissive: "That's a good question, but what can we do? We can't forbid people from buying it. Dre 's promotion of his Beats by Dr. Dre headphone line and Dr. Pepperand Drake 's commercial with Sprite are successful deals. Although product placement deals were not popular in the s, MC Hammer was an early innovator in this type of strategy. With merchandise such as dolls, commercials for soft drinks and numerous television show appearances, Hammer began the trend of rap artists being accepted as mainstream pitchpeople for brands.
Hip hop culture has had extensive coverage in the media, especially in relation to television; there have been a number of television shows devoted to or about hip hop, including in Europe " H. For many years, BET was the only television channel likely to play hip hop, but in recent years [ when? Hip hop magazines describe hip hop's culture, including information about rappers and MCs, new hip hop music, concerts, events, fashion and history.
It contained the first rap music record chart. They knew the art form very well and noticed the need for a hip hop magazine. DJs and rappers did not have a way to learn about rap music styles and labels. The periodical began as the first Rap record chart and tip sheet for DJs and was distributed through national record pools and record stores throughout the New York City Tri-State area.
One of the founding publishers, Charles Carroll noted, "Back then, all DJs came into New York City to buy their records but most of them did not know what was hot enough to spend money on, so we charted it. Another popular hip hop magazine that arose in the s was Word Up magazinean American magazine catering to the youth with an emphasis on hip hop. It featured articles on what is like to be a part of the hip hop community, promoted up-coming albums, Tony Touch - Hip-Hop #77 Rap Attack (CDr), bringing awareness to the projects that the artist was involved in, and also included posters of trending celebrities within the world of Hip Hop.
Word Up magazine was highly popular, it was even mentioned in the popular song by The Notorious B. G - Juicy "it was all a dream, use to read WordUp magazine". Word Up magazine was a part of pop culture.
New York tourists from abroad took the publication back home with them to other countries to share it, creating worldwide interest in the culture and new art form. The "Hip Hop Hit List" was also the first to define hip hop as a culture introducing the many aspects of the art form such as fashion, music, dance, the arts and most importantly the language. Most interviews were written verbatim which included their innovative broken English style of writing. Some of the early charts were written in the graffiti format tag style but was made legible enough for the masses.
The Carroll Brothers were also consultants to the many record companies who had no idea how to market hip hop music. Vincent Carroll, the magazine's creator-publisher, went on to become a huge source for marketing and promoting the culture of hip hop, starting Tony Touch - Hip-Hop #77 Rap Attack (CDr) Media, the first hip hop marketing firm with offices in NYC's Tribeca district.
At the age of 21, Vincent Carroll employed a staff of 15 and assisted in launching some of the culture's biggest and brightest stars the Fugees, Nelly, the Outzidaz, feat. Eminem and many more. The 21st century also ushered in the rise of online media, and Golden Feeling hop fan sites now offer comprehensive hip hop coverage on a daily basis.
Clothing, hair and other styles have been a big part of hip hop's social and cultural impact since the s. Although the styles have changed over the decades, distinctive urban apparel and looks have been an important way for rappers, breakdancers and other hip hop community members to express themselves. As the hip hop music genre's popularity increased, so did the effect of its fashion. While there were early items synonymous with hip hop that crossed over into the mainstream culture, like Run-DMC's affinity for Adidas or the Wu-Tang Clan's championing of Clarks' Wallabeesit wasn't until its commercial peak that hip hop fashion became influential.
Starting in the mid- to late s, hip hop culture embraced some major designers and established a new connection with classic fashion. Brands such as Ralph LaurenCalvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger all tapped into hip hop culture and gave very little in return. Moving into the new millennium, hip hop fashion consisted of baggy shirts, jeans, and jerseys. As names like Pharrell and Jay-Z started their own clothing lines and still others like Kanye West linked up with designers like Louis Vuittonthe clothes got tighter, more classically fashionable, and expensive.
As hip hop has a seen a shift in the means by which its artists express their masculinity, from violence and intimidation to wealth-flaunting and entrepreneurship, it has also seen the emergence of rapper branding. By the early s, major apparel companies "[had] realized the economic potential of tapping into hip hop culture Tommy Hilfiger was one of the first major fashion designer[s] who actively courted rappers as a way of promoting his street wear ".
Hip Hop artists are trend-setters and taste-makers. Their fans range from minority groups who can relate to their professed struggles to majority groups who cannot truly relate but like to "consume the fantasy of living a more masculine life".
In exchange for giving artists free wardrobes, Hilfiger found its name mentioned in both rhyming verses of rap songs and their 'shout-out' lyrics, in which rap artists chant out thanks to friends and sponsors for their support. Hilfiger's success convinced other large mainstream American fashion design companies, like Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein, to tailor lines to the lucrative market of hip hop artists and fans.
Artists now use brands as a means of supplemental income to their music or are creating and expanding their own brands that become their primary source of income. As Harry Elam explains, there has been a movement "from the incorporation and redefinition of existing trends to actually designing and marketing products as hip hop fashion". Hip hop music has spawned dozens of subgenres which incorporate hip hop music production approaches, such as samplingcreating beats, or rapping.
The diversification process stems from the appropriation of hip hop culture by other ethnic groups. There are many varying social influences that affect hip hop's message in different nations. In South Africa the largest form of hip hop is called Kwaitowhich has had a growth similar to American hip hop. Kwaito is a direct reflection of a post apartheid South Africa and is a voice for the voiceless; a term that U. Kwaito is even perceived as a lifestyle, encompassing many aspects of life, including language and fashion.
Kwaito is a political and party-driven genre, as performers use the music to express their political views, and also to express their desire to have a good time.
Kwaito is a music that came from a once hated and oppressed people, but it is now sweeping the nation. The main consumers of Kwaito are adolescents and half of the South African population is under Some of the large Kwaito artists have sold more thanalbums, and in an industry where 25, albums sold is considered a gold record, those are impressive numbers.
In Jamaicathe sounds of hip hop are derived from American and Jamaican influences. Jamaican hip hop is defined both through dancehall and reggae music. Jamaican Kool Herc brought the sound systems, technology, and techniques of reggae music to New York during the s. Jamaican hip hop artists often rap in both Brooklyn and Jamaican accents. Jamaican hip hop subject matter is often influenced by outside and internal forces.
Outside forces such as the bling-bling era of today's modern hip hop and internal influences coming from the use of anti-colonialism and marijuana or "ganja" references which Rastafarians believe bring them closer to God. Author Wayne Marshall argues that "Hip hop, as with any number of African-American cultural forms before it, offers a range of compelling and contradictory significations to Jamaican artist and audiences.
From "modern blackness" to "foreign mind", transnational cosmopolitanism to militant pan-Africanismradical remixology to outright mimicry, hip hop in Jamaica embodies the myriad ways that Jamaicans embrace, reject, and incorporate foreign yet familiar forms. In the developing world, hip hop has made a considerable impact in the social context. Despite the lack of resources, hip hop has made considerable inroads. Hip hop has begun making inroads with more than black artists.
There are number of other minority artists who are taking center stage as many first generation minority children come of age. One example is rapper Awkwafina, an Asian-Americanwho raps about being Asian as well as being female.
She, like many others, use rap to express her experiences as a minority not necessarily to "unite" minorities together but to tell her story.
Many hip hop artists from the developing world come to the United States to seek Digitalia (2) - Coppa Del Mondo (World Cup Italia) (Vinyl). Maya Arulpragasm A.
Jal is one of the few South Sudanese music artists to have broken through on an international level  with his unique form of hip hop and a positive message in his lyrics. Many K-Pop artists in South Korea have been influenced by hip hop and many South Korean artists perform hip hop music.
In SeoulSouth Korea, Koreans b-boy. Scholars argue that hip hop can have an empowering effect on youth. While there is misogyny, violence, and drug use in rap music videos and lyrics, hip hop also displays many positive themes of self-reliance, resilience, and self-esteem.
These messages can be inspiring for a youth living in poverty. A lot of rap songs contain references to strengthening the African American community promoting social causes.
Social workers have used hip hop to build a relationship with at-risk youth and develop a deeper connection with the child. The lyrics of hip hop have been used to learn about literary devices such as metaphor, imagery, irony, tone, theme, motif, plot, and point of view.
Organizations and facilities are providing spaces and programs for communities to explore making and learning about hip hop. Many dance studios and colleges now offer lessons in hip hop alongside tap and ballet, as well as KRS-ONE teaching hip hop lectures at Harvard University. One of the biggest artists of early hip-hop Eazy-E, a member of N. A had died of AIDS in Since the age of slavery, music has long been the language of African American identity.
Because reading and writing were forbidden under the auspices of slavery, music became the only accessible form of communication. Hundreds of years later, in inner-city neighborhoods plagued by high illiteracy and dropout rates, music remains the most dependable medium of expression. Hip Hop is thus to modern day as Negro Spirituals are to the plantations of the old South: the emergent music articulates the terrors of one's environment better than written, or spoken word, thereby forging an "unquestioned association of oppression with creativity [that] is endemic" to African American culture".
As a result, lyrics of rap songs have often been treated as "confessions" to a number of violent crimes in the United States. This demands being proud of being from disadvantaged cities neighborhoods that have traditionally been a source of shame, and glorifying them in lyrics and graffiti. This has potentially been one of the ways that hip hop has become regarded as a "local" rather than "foreign" genre of music in so many countries around the world in just a few decades.
Nevertheless, sampling and borrowing from a number of genres and places is also a part of the hip hop milieu, and an album like the surprise hit Kala by Anglo-Tamil rapper M. According to scholar Joseph Schloss, the essentialist perspective of Hip Hop conspicuously obfuscates the role that individual style and pleasure plays in the development of the genre.
Schloss notes that Hip Hop is forever fossilized as an inevitable cultural emergent, as if "none of hip-hop's innovators had been born, a different group of poor black youth from the Bronx would have developed hip-hop in exactly the same way". He thus concludes that Hip Hop was a result of choice, not fate, and that when individual contributions and artistic preferences are ignored, the genre's origin becomes overly attributed to collective cultural oppression.
Hip hop music artists and advocates have stated that hip hop has been an authentic true and "real" African-American artistic and cultural form since its emergence in inner-city Bronx neighborhoods in the s. Some music critics, scholars and political commentators [ who? Advocates who claim hip hop is an authentic music genre state that it is an ongoing response to the violence and discrimination experienced by black people in the United States, from the slavery that existed into the 19th century, to the lynchings of the 20th century and the ongoing racial discrimination faced by blacks.
These two dissenting understandings of hip hop's scope and influence frame debates that revolve around hip hop's possession of or lack of authenticity. Weheliye notes, "Popular music, generally in the form of recordings, Shock Treatment - Donnie Iris - Back On The Streets / King Cool (CD) and still continues to function as one of the main channels of communication between the different geographical and cultural points in the African diasporaallowing artists to articulate and perform their diasporic citizenship to international audiences and establish conversations with other diasporic communities.
In "Phonographies", Weheyliye explains how new sound technologies used in hip hop encourage "diasporic citizenship" and African-American cultural and political activities. What Gilroy calls the "Black Atlantic" music's rituals and traditions are a more expansive way of thinking about African-American "blackness", a way that moves beyond contemporary debates around essentialist and anti-essentialist arguments.
As such, Gilroy states that music has been and remains a central staging ground for debates over the work, responsibility, and future role of black cultural and artistic production. Old-school hip hop performer DJ Kool Hercalong with traditional hip hop artists Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Cazoriginally Tony Touch - Hip-Hop #77 Rap Attack (CDr) views against mainstream rap.
Regardless of such, b-boys and b-girls still exist to showing lack of support to jams and events that they feel represent the culture as a sport, form Quit - Mr.
Lex* - Quit (Vinyl) entertainment and as well through capitalism. Inhip hop and rap pioneer Chuck Dfrom the group Public Enemy criticized young hip hop artists from the s, stating that they have taken a music genre with extensive roots in underground music and turned it into commercialized pop music.
Critics have also stated that hip hop music promotes drug use and violence. Hip hop has been criticized by rock-centric critics who state that hip hop is not a true art form and who state that rock and roll music is more authentic.
These critics are advocating a viewpoint called " rockism " which favors music written and performed by the individual artist as seen in some famous singer-songwriter -led rock bands and is against s decade -era hip hop, which these critics argue give too large a role to record producers and digital sound recording. Hip hop is seen as being too violent and explicit, in comparison with rock. Some contend that the criticisms have racial overtones, as these critics deny that hip hop is an art form and praising rock genres that prominently feature white males.
The hip hop music genre and its subculture has been criticized for its gender bias and its negative impacts on women in African-American culture. Dre have, primarily in the 90's, rapped lyrics that portray women as sex toys and inferior to or otherwise dependent upon men. Hip hop music frequently promotes masculine hegemony and it depicts women as individuals who must rely on men.
There is a high frequency of songs with lyrics that are demeaning, or depict sexual violence or sexual assault towards women. The misrepresentation of women, primarily woman of color, as objects rather than other human beings and the presence of male dominance in hip hop extends back to the birth of the genre.
However, many female artists have also emerged in shedding light on both their personal issues and the misrepresentations of women in hip-hip and culture. Despite the success of them and others, female rappers remain proportionally few in the mainstream industry. Very few female artists have been recognized in hip hop, and the most popular, successful and influential artists, record producers and music executives are males. Women who are in rap groups, such as Lauryn Hill of the Fugeestend to have less advantages and opportunities than male artists.
Only one female artist has won Best Rap album of the year at the Grammy Awards since the category was added in Latinas, especially Cuban, Dominican and Puerto Rican women, are degraded and fetishized in hip hop. White women and Asian women are also fetishized in hip hop but not as much as Latinas, who are referred to as "Spanish".
Latinas, especially Puerto Rican models and Dominican models, are often portrayed as an object of sexual desire in hip hop videos. As well, the hip hop music community has been criticized with accusations of homophobia and transphobia. Until the s, hip hop music has excluded the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT community. This has perpetuated a culture in hip hop that is prejudiced towards queer and trans people, making it a tough culture for queer artists to participate in.
One of the more notable members of the LGBT community in hip hop is Frank Oceanwho came out in and has released critically acclaimed albums and won two Grammy Awards. Having its roots in reggaediscofunk and soul musichip hop has since expanded worldwide. Its expansion includes events like Afrika Bambaataa's releasing of Planet Rockwhich tried to establish a more global harmony. In the s, the British Slick Rick became the first international hit hip hop artist not native to America.
From Yo! Hip hop has been cut, mixed and adapted as it the music spreads to new areas. Early hip hop [ by whom? However, with the emergence of commercial and crime-related gangsta rap during the early s, violence, drugs, weapons, and misogynywere key themes. Socially and politically conscious hip hop has long been disregarded by mainstream America in favor of its media-baiting sibling, gangsta rap. Black female artists such as Queen LatifahMissy Elliottand MC Lyte have made great strides since the hip hop industry first began.
By producing music and an image that did not cater to the hyper-sexualized stereotypes of black women in hip hop, these women pioneered a revitalized and empowering image of black women in hip hop. These artists seek to expand ways of traditional thinking through different ways of cultural expression. In this effort they hope to elicit a response to female hip hop artists not with a misogynist lens but with one that validates women's struggle.
Many have written about these intersections of hip-hop and feminism. In her article, Shange discusses the inability to categorize Nicki Minaj's music as either specifically hetero or homosexual. She says that Nicki uses a sort of strategic queerness that uses her sex appeal both ways to attract her audience. Shange writes how even when looking at Nicki's music and persona from a homonormative lens, she defies categorization.
She goes on to describe how Minaj "is a rapper whose critical, strategic performance of queer femininity is inextricable linked to the production and reception of their rhymes. In addition, there is a vibrant scene outside the mainstream that provides an opportunity for women and their music to flourish.
Queen Latifah used her award-winning song "U. However, many contemporary females in hip hop do not embody this mindset and counteract it. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subculture including music, dance and graffiti. This article is about the culture in general. For the music genre, see Hip hop music. For other uses, see Hip hop disambiguation.
This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Turntablism. Main article: Rapping. Main article: Breakdancing. Main article: Beatboxing. Main article: Hip hop production. Many black rappers--including Ice-T and Sister Souljah--contend that they are being unfairly singled out because their music reflects deep changes in society not being addressed anywhere else in the public forum.
The white politicians, the artists complain, neither understand the music nor desire to hear what's going on in the devastated communities that gave birth to the art form. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. December Main article: List of hip hop genres. Main article: Misogyny in rap music. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Latina stereotypes in hip hop. Main article: Homophobia in hip hop culture.
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. United States portal. Queerty Inc. Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved December 9, Born in the Bronx. New York: Oxford University Press. Movmnt Magazine.
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